An annotated list of plant viruses described in Paraguay (1920–2023)


  • Arnaldo Esquivel-Fariña Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias
  • Luis R. González-Segnana Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias
  • Elliot W. Kitajima Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Departamento de Fitopatologia e Nematologia


Abstract Despite an economy based mostly on agriculture, literature on viral diseases of plants is scarce in Paraguay. Only recently, researches on plant viruses took an impulse resulting in a precise identification of many of them affecting plants either cultivated or not. To provide reliable information regarding plant viruses present in Paraguay, an annotated list of them was prepared, covering descriptions from 1920 to present day. There have been some important outbreaks with severe yield losses in crops as cucurbits, citrus, sesame, bean, maize, peanuts and tomato. Many of older descriptions are included for their historical significance, but most identifications made require confirmation. On the other hand, recent descriptions have been completed, based on several assays, especially molecular characterization. This list is organized alphabetically following scientific names of the plant species found naturally infected by viruses, with comments about symptoms, geographical distribution, incidence, identification procedures, and other information, with due literature references. It is based on a compilation of publications made on plant virus diseases in Paraguay. Described virus species, in a total of 38 recognized by ICTV, belonging to 17 different genera (Alphaendornavirus, Ampelovirus, Begomovirus, Benyvirus, Carlavirus, Cilevirus, Closterovirus, Comovirus, Cucumovirus, Dichorhavirus, Fabavirus, Luteovirus, Ophiovirus, Orthotospovirus, Potexvirus, Potyvirus and Tobamovirus), besides two unclassified, and four unidentified. There is also a case of viroid described in Citrus spp. Infections caused by potyviruses are the most numerous. These viruses were described in more than 40 plant species, belonging to 18 botanical families. Because of crop diversity and richness in native flora, many more viruses must be present in Paraguay, which future works will certainly reveal, especially with the increase in manpower involving researches, especially cooperative with foreign centers, on plant viruses, which has been very limited until now. Also, knowledge on existing viruses may have relevance in understanding their epidemiology and provide the basis for their control strategies and quarantine measures, to avoid new variants of existing viruses or new viruses being introduced.




How to Cite

Esquivel-Fariña, A., González-Segnana, L. R., & Kitajima, E. W. (2024). An annotated list of plant viruses described in Paraguay (1920–2023). Biota Neotropica, 24(1). Retrieved from //