Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees
Keywords:plant-insect interactions, oil-collecting bees, oil-flowers, Plantaginaceae, Apidae
AbstractFloral oils as reward to pollinators occur in eleven plant families and appeared at least 28 times in the evolutionary history of flowering plants. They are produced in epithelial or tricomatic glands and collected by oil bee visitors. The present paper focuses on floral-oil-producing species of Plantaginaceae, a Neotropical group namely Angelonia clade. This group comprises around 40 described species in the genera Angelonia, Basistemon, Monttea, Monopera and the oil-less Melosperma. We present a revision of all species of the Angelonia clade, their geographical distribution, resources offered to pollinators and records of flower visitors, especially oil-collecting bees. These plants rely only on oil-collecting species in the tribe Centridini and Tapinotaspidini for a successful pollination, being the interaction between both partners an especial case of bee/flower adaptation in Neotropical region. Some bee species depend only on the oil of Plantaginaceae flowers to survive, while others can collect on several floral oil sources. The pollinating bees explore the oil glands located in sacs using specialized hairs in the forelegs. With this study, we hope to inspire further research relating to this fascinating group of plants, in which most species are rare and occur in highly endangered habitats in South American open vegetation biomes.
How to Cite
Martins, A. C., & Alves-dos-Santos, I. (2013). Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees. Biota Neotropica, 13(4). Retrieved from //www.biotaneotropica.org.br/BN/article/view/1212