Vol 13 Num 4




Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees

Aline C. Martins

University of Munich
Systematic Botany and Mycology, Menzinger Street 67, 80638 Munich, Germany
email: aline_cmartins@yahoo.com.br

Isabel Alves-dos-Santos

Universidade de São Paulo
Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, São Paulo, SP, Brazil

keywords
Plant-insect interactions, oil-collecting bees, oil-flowers, Plantaginaceae, Apidae

publication date: 10-28-2013





Abstract
Floral oils as reward to pollinators occur in eleven plant families and appeared at least 28 times in the evolutionary history of flowering plants. They are produced in epithelial or tricomatic glands and collected by oil bee visitors. The present paper focuses on floral-oil-producing species of Plantaginaceae, a Neotropical group namely Angelonia  clade. This group comprises around 40 described species in the genera Angelonia , Basistemon , Monttea , Monopera  and the oil-less Melosperma . We present a revision of all species of the Angelonia  clade, their geographical distribution, resources offered to pollinators and records of flower visitors, especially oil-collecting bees. These plants rely only on oil-collecting species in the tribe Centridini and Tapinotaspidini for a successful pollination, being the interaction between both partners an especial case of bee/flower adaptation in Neotropical region. Some bee species depend only on the oil of Plantaginaceae flowers to survive, while others can collect on several floral oil sources. The pollinating bees explore the oil glands located in sacs using specialized hairs in the forelegs. With this study, we hope to inspire further research relating to this fascinating group of plants, in which most species are rare and occur in highly endangered habitats in South American open vegetation biomes.

how to quote this paper
Martins, A. C. and Santos, I. A. Floral-oil-producing Plantaginaceae species: geographical distribution, pollinator rewards and interactions with oil-collecting bees. Biota Neotrop.  Oct/Dec 2013 vol. 13, no. 4 http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v13n4/en/abstract?article+bn01313042013 ISSN 1676-0603.

Cited species
check for this species in other resources Angelonia 
check for this species in other resources Basistemon 
check for this species in other resources Melosperma 
check for this species in other resources Monopera 
check for this species in other resources Monttea 



Fundação de Amparo | Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, Fapesp
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, CNPq
© BIOTA NEOTROPICA, 2013