Vol 12 Num 1




Floristic and phytosociology in permanent plots of the Atlantic Rainforest along na altitudinal gradient in southeastern Brazil

Carlos Alfredo Joly

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Departamento Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia – IB, CP 6109, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
email: cjoly@unicamp.br

Marco Antonio Assis

Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP
Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Av. 24A,1515, Bela Vista, CP 199, CEP 13506900, Rio Claro, SP, Brasil
Luis Carlos Bernacci

Instituto Agronômico de Campinas – IAC
Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Jardim Botânico – CEC, Av. Barão de Itapura, 1481, CP 28, Jardim Guanabara, CP 28, CEP 13001-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Jorge Yoshio Tamashiro

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Departamento Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia – IB, CP 6109, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Mariana Cruz Rodrigues de Campos

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Departamento Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia – IB, CP 6109, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
José Ataliba Mantelli Aboin Gomes

Instituto Agronômico de Campinas – IAC
Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Jardim Botânico – CEC, Av. Barão de Itapura, 1481, CP 28, Jardim Guanabara, CP 28, CEP 13001-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Maryland Sanchez Lacerda

Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul – UFMS
Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Rod. MT 100, Km 3,5, Setor Universitário, CEP 78698-000, Pontal do Araguaia, MT, Brasil
Flávio Antonio Mäes dos Santos

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Departamento Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia – IB, CP 6109, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Fernando Pedroni

Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul – UFMS
Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Rod. MT 100, Km 3,5, Setor Universitário, CEP 78698-000, Pontal do Araguaia, MT, Brasil
Larissa de Souza Pereira

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Departamento Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia – IB, CP 6109, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Maíra de Campos Gorgulho Padgurschi

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Departamento Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia – IB, CP 6109, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Eduardo Magalhães Borges Prata

Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP
Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Av. 24A,1515, Bela Vista, CP 199, CEP 13506900, Rio Claro, SP, Brasil
Eliana Ramos

Instituto Agronômico de Campinas – IAC
Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Jardim Botânico – CEC, Av. Barão de Itapura, 1481, CP 28, Jardim Guanabara, CP 28, CEP 13001-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Roseli Buzanelli Torres

Instituto Agronômico de Campinas – IAC,
Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Jardim Botânico – CEC, Av. Barão de Itapura, 1481, CP 28, Jardim Guanabara, CP 28, CEP 13001-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
André Rochelle

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Departamento Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia – IB, CP 6109, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Fernando Roberto Martins

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Departamento Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia – IB, CP 6109, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Luciana Ferreira Alves

Instituto de Botânica, IBt
Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado – SMA, Av. Miguel Estéfano, 3687,Água Funda, CEP 04301-902, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
Simone Aparecida Vieira

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisas Ambientais – NEPAM, Rua dos Flamboyants, 155, Cidade Universitária, CEP 13083-867, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Luiz Antonio Martinelli

Universidade de São Paulo – USP
Laboratório de Ecologia Isotópica, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura – CENA, Av. Centenário, 303, São Dimas, CEP 13416-903, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil
Plínio Barbosa de Camargo

Universidade de São Paulo – USP
- Laboratório de Ecologia Isotópica, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura – CENA, Av. Centenário, 303, São Dimas, CEP 13416-903, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil
Marcos Pereira Marinho Aidar

Instituto de Botânica, IBt
Instituto de Botânica, IBt, Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado – SMA, Av. Miguel Estéfano, 3687,Água Funda, CEP 04301-902, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Departamento Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia – IB, CP 6109, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil
Eliane Simões

Instituto de Botânica – IBt
Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado – SMA, 9 - Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar – PESM, Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado – SMA, BR 101, Km 08, CP 157, CEP 11680-000, Ubatuba, SP
João Paulo Villani

Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado – SMA
Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar – PESM, Rod. Owaldo Cruz, Km 78, Alto da Serra, CEP 12140-000, São Luiz do Paraitinga, SP - Brasil
Renato Belinello

Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP
Departamento Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia – IB, CP 6109, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brasil

keywords
Serra do Mar State Park, Nucleo Picinguaba, Nucleo Santa Virginia, species richness, phytophysiognomies, Vegetation Classification System, BIOTA Functional Gradient Project

publication date: 03-19-2012





Abstract
This paper summarizes floristic and phytossociology data of 11, out of 14 plots of 1 ha, allocated along an altitudinal gradient in the Serra do Mar, São Paulo, Brazil. The study was conducted at Serra do Mar State Park and the plots start at the sea level (10 m – plot of Restinga Forest that occurs at Praia da Fazenda, Picinguaba, municipality of Ubatuba) up to 1100 m above sea level (the Montane Ombrophilous Dense occurs alongside the Itamambuca Trail, municipality of São Luis do Paraitinga). The Restinga Forest occurs in Pleistocenic Coastal Plain where the soil is classified as a sandy Quartzipsamment (Quartzenic Neosol), while along the slopes of the Serra do Mar, the Ombrophylus Dense Forest grows on the top of a pre-Cambrian crystalline basement with granitic rocks, where the soil is a sandy-loam Dystrophic Inceptisol (Cambisol/Latosol). In all 14 plots soils are acidic (pH 3 – 4), chemically poor, with high dilution of nutrients and high saturation of aluminum. In the Restinga and at the foot of the slope the climate is Tropical/Subtropical Humid (Af/Cfa), with no dry season, an average annual rainfall over 2,200 mm and an average annual temperature of 22 °C. Towards the top of the Serra do Mar there is a gradual cooling along the slope, but there is no reduction in rainfall, so at 1,100 m above sea level the climate is classified as Humid Subtropical (Cfa/Cfb), with no dry season and an average annual temperature of 17 °C. It is important to remark that, almost daily, from 400 m above sea level up to the top of slopes the mountains are covered by a dense fog. In the 14 plots 21,733 individuals with DBH ≥ 4.8 cm, including trees, palms and ferns, were marked, measured and sampled. The average number of individuals sampled in each plot was 1264 ind.ha–1(± 218 SE 95%). Within the parameters considered trees prevailed (71% in the Montane ODF to 90% in the Restinga Forest), followed by palms (10% in the RF and 25% in the Montane Ombrophilous Dense Forest/ODF) and ferns (0% % in the RF and 4% in the Montane ODF). Regarding these proportions the Exploited Lowlands ODF differs from the others with only 1.8% of palm trees and striking 10% of ferns. The forest canopy is irregular with heights ranging from 7 to 9 m, rarely emergent trees reach 18 m, and due to this irregularity of the canopy the amount of light that gets through sets conditions for the development of hundreds of epiphytic species. Aside from Montana ODF, where the number of dead trees was more than 5% of individuals sampled, in the other phytophysiognomies this value was below 2.5%. In the 11 plots where the floristic study was conducted we found 562 species in 195 genera and 68 families. Only seven species - Euterpe  edulis  Mart. (Arecaceae), Calyptranthes  lucida  Mart. ex DC. and Marlierea  tomentosa  Cambess (both Myrtaceae), Guapira  opposita  (Vell.) Reitz (Nyctaginaceae), Cupania  oblongifolia  Mart. (Sapindaceae), Cecropia  glaziovii  Snethl. and Coussapoa  microcarpa  (Schott) Rizzini (both Urticaceae) – occurred from Restinga to Montane ODF, while 12 other species did not occur only in the Restinga Forest. Families with the greatest number of species are Myrtaceae (133 spp), Fabaceae (47 spp), Rubiaceae (49) and Lauraceae (49) throughout the gradient and Monimiaceae (21) specifically in portions Montane ODF. Only in the F plot, where logging has occurred between 1950 and 1985, the abundance of palm trees has been replaced by Cyatheaceae. The study shows a peak of diversity and richness, Shannon-Weiner index (H') ranging from 3.96 to 4.48 nats.ind–1, in the intermediate altitudes (300 to 400 m) along the slope. Several explanations for this result are raised here, including the fact that these elevations are within the limits expansions and retractions of the different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic ODF due to climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the extraordinary richness of tree species of the Atlantic Rainforest from the northeastern coast of the State of Sao Paulo, reinforcing the importance of its conservation throughout the altitudinal gradient. The richness of this forest justifies a long term commitment to study its dynamics and functioning through permanent plots, and monitor the impacts of climate change in this vegetation.

how to quote this paper
Joly, C.A., Assis, M.A., Bernacci, L.C., Tamashiro, J.Y, Campos, M.C.R., Gomes, J.A.M.A., Lacerda, M.S., Santos, F.A.M., Pedroni, F., Pereira, L.S., Padgurschi, M.C., Prata, E.M.B.; Ramos, E., Torres, R.B., Rochelle, A., Martins, F.R, Alves, L.F., Vieira, S.A., Martinelli, L.A., Camargo, P.B., Aidar, M.P.M., Eisenlohr, P.V., Simões, E., Villani, J.P. and Belinello, R. Floristic and phytosociology in permanent plots of the Atlantic Rainforest along na altitudinal gradient in southeastern Brazil. Biota Neotrop.  12(1): http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v12n1/en/abstract?article+bn01812012012

Cited species
check for this species in other resources Calyptranthes  lucida 
check for this species in other resources Cecropia  glaziovii 
check for this species in other resources Coussapoa  microcarpa 
check for this species in other resources Cupania  oblongifolia 
check for this species in other resources Euterpe  edulis 
check for this species in other resources Guapira  opposita 
check for this species in other resources Marlierea  tomentosa 



Fundação de Amparo | Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, Fapesp
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, CNPq
© BIOTA NEOTROPICA, 2012